نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دانشگاه هنر اصفهان. گروه پژوهش هنر
عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranians have been one of the pioneers of gardening in the world and have developed a special form of garden with the name of Iranian Garden. Although the gardens had different and sometimes conflicting uses for them, they were often localized for comfort and relaxation. An Iranian effort to construct a parody of Paradise/ Ferdows or Grantham of Zoroastrianism has given the holy gardens a great value.
Accordingly, the thought of Garden - Paradise has also had an effect on the Iranian worldview in the Islamic religion. The description of the Holy Qur'an from Paradise, in many respects, is in accordance with Persian Ferdows, as the name of the Avestaan of Ferdows, Roza and Rezvan in the Quran also expresses it. Iranians have long been interested in buried in gardens; these types of gardens known as "Gardens of Gardens" have a special place in the study of Iranian garden culture.
Nowadays, in large cities, where there is no possibility of burials in gardens, most Iranians work on trees over the tomb of the dead. Some of the great gardens in Iran have such a material and spiritual value that their name has remained in history. Historical gardens of Tabriz, Shiraz, Herat, Nishapur and Balkh, Isfahan and Kerman are among the archipelago of Paradise. One of these famous gardens in Nishapur is Shadyakh, which is the subject of our study here.
Although the meaningful relationship between the poems of all Iranian poets can be interpreted and explained in relation to nature and history around them, the distinctive features of the character of Khayyam and his hometown are more obvious than the causal relation of man-nature.
The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of a very important part of Khayyam's poetry, which has influenced not only the fate of Nishapur, but also politically and culturally in other fateful places. To achieve this goal, first, the effect of geography on this poet's thoughts is investigated, then, the state and history of .... is taken into consideration, and finally, the effect of this atmosphere in the formation of Khayyam's poetry is analyzed.
This essay is targeted by theoretical foundations, because due to its specific dependence on the epistemic domain, it is considered to be a knowledge-driven aspect; we are, by nature, descriptive-analytical-comparative. Hence, after explaining the subject, it explains how the situation is and the dimensions of it, and tilt to the argumentative basis through the matching of elements of the image with the poem of Khayyam in a similar subject. This way, of course, is the qualitative method of the criterion. The compilation of the information necessary to start the research, in the form of a library, and a collection tool, has been the index card. The research question is: Has Khayyam used Nishapur Gardens in his poetry? And what more are the themes of Khayyam as the significance of reflection in the form of poetry?
The garden of Shadyakh and its surroundings as a separate gardens from Nishapur have, over time, run a very variable role for their motherland, sometimes Dar Al Saltanah, sometimes a gardener and an agricultural site, and sometimes also a place for the reconstruction of the lost identity of Nishapur.
It happened many times that people who escaped from natural disasters, massacres and wounded people and patients and prisoners came from the corners of the ruins of the city to the Shadyakh and lived in its beautiful nature and reconstructed the identity of Nishapur, and when they realized they could build another Nishapur, Returned to the ruins and rebuilt the city.
Shadyakh has repeatedly served as a mother for Nishapur. The joy was like a beautiful paradise, where the innocent person from Nishapur was never driven out, he was allowed to take refuge in his lap several times.
The collapse of houses and walls and the great destruction of the ruins and ruins of the palace built inShadyakh were once again destroyed by an invading people or other founders of other clans, a permanent wheel in its life.And every time a Nishapur who survived these catastrophes intended to live in joy or herself, he used clay, soil, and building materials to build old neighborhoods to build a new residence.
Those of the great emperors of the great poet, who refer to the disbelief of the world and the burrowing of masters and crowns and palaces, certainly refer to the story of Shadyak which remained in the memory of the unconscious Nishapourians.
The explanation and interpretation of the thoughts of the scholars in relation to the environment and the geography of his life can be a key to the approach to the elements of his thinking. The question of why Khayyam was Khayyam, on the one hand, has its answer in Iranian culture, the events of that time, and on the other hand, in the historical geography of Nishapur.
The period in which Khayyam lived was one of the most turbulent historical periods in Iran, especially Khorasan. In his time, Khorasan was still familiar with the memory of Iran's pre-Islamic culture, perhaps some still hoped that in the not too distant future, Iran would regain its former glory; however, the descent of the tribes of Ghaz, Tatar, followed by the Mongols, this Made Dream a tough nightmare and created a demagogic and disinterested philosophy of the world among the people. The Khorasan era of Khayyam was a scene of successive uprisings and destruction, as Khayyam likened this continuous cycle to "bombardment on the seas" in one of his quibbles. Obviously, in such an environment, the possibility of hope for happiness and happiness in it is somewhat overwhelming. Also, external aggression should be accompanied by conflicts among Sunnis and Shiites who caused some wars and devastation. The contemporary world of Khayyam was the birth of these riots and turbulences. According to a study, over the course of his life, 32 emperors and sons of various dynasties sat on the throne, many of them consigned to conspiracies and drowned or killed. Of these, there were three emirs of the Imam of Dalaili of Iraq, Khuzestan and Kerman, 12 Shah of Ghaznavids, 2 emirs of the Ziyaran dynasty, 5 Shahs of the Great Salajeq, 7 Shah of the Seljukites of Kerman, 1 Shah of Khwarazmshahians, 1 Amir of the Dalimians of Persia and 1 The Shah was from the Seljuqs of Iraq.
The study of Khayyam's poetry, given the historical and geographical characteristics of his life environment, should first be sought in his contemporary world,However, if we can link these poems to a specific point, based on this link, all the poems can be adapted to its environment and geography, the garden of Shadyakh is a very good example that can be matched to any one of Khayyam's poems
From the continuity with the history of ancient Iran, the riots, the transient beauties of nature, and the world's coldness to the Taliban, all existed in the form of this garden complex and influenced the poetry of the Eastern Philosophers.
The findings suggest that a large number of Khayyam's poems, especially those referring to the destruction of palaces and the death of kings and intellectuals, are of course influenced by the history of Shadyakh. It shows the poet's influence on his surroundings. The cause of the matter must be sought in the state of the hapless and mournful history of Shadyakh.