عنوان مقاله [English]
In this essay, we try to find the roots of the story, which Manosh, Roman commander, sends for Kush the tusked in Iranian sources. In this story, first, we consider Pilate and the role he played in the crucifixion of Jesus and his ascension, then the cynicism of the 'Simon', an apostle of Jesus, was drawn from the Jews, and finally, the tricks of the two apostles, 'Adnies' and 'Matthew', in the Christianization of the Romans are referred to. The first part of the story (Jesus' ascension) is in Manichaean's words and the sermons of the hymns about the crucifixion of Jesus in Manichaeism. The second part (Simon's revenge of the Jews) has been attributed to the kingdom of the Romans in the history of the Islamic era (History of Bala'mi). The third part (Adni and Matthew's trick for Christianization the Romans), according to Abu Ishaq Neishaburi’s Ghisas al- Anbia, is observed in the acts of Simon.
In the present descriptive–analytical study, the researcher aimed at reaching the likely reference(s) used by Iranshan bin Abu al-Khair in writing the story of Pilatus in Kush-Nama considering its three mentioned parts, i.e., Jesus' crucification, simon's vengeance, and the Christianization of Romans by Adina and matthew along with other Persian texts such as Manichaean texts (based on Islamic culture), historical texts written in Islamic era (influenced by Persian culture and myths) and stories related to prophets (developed in Islamic culture). Also the researcher has tried to answer this question: did Iranshan wrote Pilatus being influence by only old Persian narratives or was he also influenced by semitic or Islamic stories?
In kush-Nama, Manush, the Roman commander, sends five stories of kings to kush the tusked. One of the stories was related to pilatus and his role in Jesus' crucifixion. Also, it contained Simon's vengeance and the role of his two apostles in the Christianization of Romans. In this study the researcher has tried to provide references from Persian sources for the mentioned three parts. The first part, Jesus' ascension, is found in Manichaean texts like Juses' crucifixion hymns, such as M18+M2753. In this article, first, the disclaim of Pilatus and appointing Jewish to kill Jesus are referred to.
After crucifixion, they buried him. They wanted to wash his body with perfumery to prevent its decay but it was Saturday and it was impossible to do anything on this day based on Jewish beliefs. On Sunday, Mary Magdalene along with two other people went to Jesus' tomb at dawn to perfume his body, but they did not find him. Two angels told Mary to look for him alive among the dead. They remind her of Jesus' words that he would be resurrected three days after crucifixion. Then, they asked Mary to inform Simon about the presence of Jesus. The second part, i.e., Simon's vengeance, was attributed to a Roman king in post Islamic history texts, such as History of Bala'mi. The third part, the trick of Adna and Matthew to Christianize Romans, is found in Qisas al-Anbiya (stories of the prophets written by Abu Ishag Neyshaburi). Thus, what is seen in Kush-Nama is the same Manichean or Persian story (intertwined with some Islamic elements). It is worth mentioning that in the second part, displacement was used (from Simon to king of Rome), and in the third part, there is a breakage component, i.e., what Simon did was broken in two other people or repeated by two other people.
It is concluded that Pilatus story in Kush-Nama and Jesus' crucifixion have a theme similar to that of Manichaean text M18+M2753. What is said about Simon's vengeance through Jesus execution by king of Rome in History of Bala'mi, which is a translation of Al-Tabari’s History and books of lords from Sassanid era, is transferred to Simon in Kush-Nama. Also the cunning of Simon in Qisas al–Anbiya written by Abu-Ishaq Neyshabouri for Christianization of Romans is broken into Adna and Matthew. Therefore, it could be said that Iranshan bin Abu al-Khair also used some Semitic and Islamic elements in Kush-Nama; however, he retained the original theme of Manichaean story as a part of Persian mythological references.