عنوان مقاله [English]
Establishing security is one of the most important issues in any society, so that if a government fails to establish the security of its citizens, all activities will be disrupted and life will be impossible. After establishing the Achaemenid Empire in 559 BC, Cyrus the Great used his military genius to form the world's first great empire and conquer large parts of Asia. His successor, Cambyses, followed his father's footsteps and succeeded in adding Egypt and Libya to the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus and Cambyses spent most of their time in war and had little opportunity to carry out internal reforms. Darius the Great (522-486 BC) was the first emperor to carry out extensive administrative, political, economic and security reforms in ancient times in a way that his actions lasted until the end of the Achaemenid dynasty. Later, the governments that came to power in Iran adopted his actions, and even today in many parts of the world, Darius's reforms in the field of security can be observed.
The research method in this study is descriptive-analytical and the method of data collection is library based with the use of valid sources and references. The necessity of the present research is that security is very necessary for every society and country and is like oxygen for human breathing. Studying the history and actions taken by civilized societies of the past regarding the creation of security, helps us to have more and better security in today's world. The importance of the present study is that the analytical method investigates the reason for the security reforms and innovations in the time of Darius the Great and the impact of these reforms on the Achaemenid era.
After Cyrus took control of Persia, he tried to conquer various lands in Asia. For this reason, during his reign of about 29 years (559-530 BC), he was able to conquer most of Asia. After the death of Cambyses and the revolt of Gaumatus the Magi, the entire Achaemenid realm was in turmoil until finally Darius in 522 BC took power. At this time to create more security in the vast Achaemenid territory, reforms such as: the division of the empire into twenty states of satrapies, the creation of an advanced information system called the ears and eyes of the king and the creation of the Great Royal Road by Darius the Great. Darius, after suppressing the early revolts of his rule, came to the conclusion that the empire created by Cyrus the Great was not well-structured needing fundamental changes and innovations in various fields. These reforms created security in the realm. Achaemenid and prolonged dynasty.
Domination over the vast territory of the Achaemenid Empire, which included the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, in addition to military and combat capabilities, required an advanced and new security system. After Darius the Great ascended to the throne in 522 BC, revolts spread throughout the whole country. After succeeding in the suppression the revolts, he decided that reforms were needed to save the empire from possible future revolts. At this time, in order to control the vast territory more and better, the Achaemenid land was divided into several states or sub-Saharan lands. At the head of each satrapy or province was a mayor or governor. khshathrapāvan (the governor) was obliged to carry out all the affairs of the province under his command, but his main duty, in addition to the accomplishment of affairs of the province under his control, was to obey the great king. In order that the governors do not revolt, Darius appointed a man as his secretary, who was obliged to report everything to the center. In addition, the military garrison of each province was not under the control of Khashtreh Pawon, but directly under the Shah’s. At this time, especially after the reforms made by Darius the Great, a very advanced information system was created. People named "The King's Eyes and Ears" were chosen from the relatives and trusted individuals of the Shah, whose task was to roam throughout the vast Achaemenid realm and report the slightest matter to the Shah. For better managing his vast territory and establishing the security of the people, Darius built roads known as the "Royal Road".
After Darius the Great ascended to the throne in 522 BC, large revolts broke out in It took place throughout the Achaemenid Empire that Darius, with the help of his loyal allies, was able to suppress the revolts. After the revolts subsided, Darius came to the conclusion that the empire did not have a strong administrative and security structure.
Moreover, Cyrus and Cambyses spent less time in conquests and battlefields and had little opportunity to reform the administrative, economic, political and security fields. Therefore, Darius tried to make new reforms and strengthen the imperial structure. In fact, Darius does not abandon Cyrus policy, as scholars believe, but strengthens the same policy. Therefore, the reason for the early revolts of Darius's rule and his new reforms was not the weakness of Cyrus' liberal policy, but the liberal policy of Cyrus the Great was the strength of his rule, so that Darius the Great and his successors tried to continue this policy until the end of the Achaemenid period.
The advanced administrative and security system created by Darius led to the establishment of lasting security in the Achaemenid Empire, so that according to ancient texts, the world entered a phase of peace and tranquility. In addition, the new system made the imperial structure strong and stable and as a consequence, the Achaemenid dynasty lasted about 150 years after Darius. The reforms continued by Darius' successors and its traces are visible even up to this day. The roots of today's world security system could be traced back to the time of Darius the Achaemenid.