عنوان مقاله [English]
Medical Sciences is considered as one of the most important characteristics of culture and civilization which passed many ups and downs in its lifetime. Afsharid and Zand dynasties ruled during one of the most critical periods of Iranian history. Repeating internal and international wars weakened all the governmental structures and the social life. However, during this time, the European progressed very fast in terms of scientific developments, including medicine and Iranian passed just the opposite way. Despite such a chaotic situation that influenced the scientific and cultural atmosphere of the country, we witness the presence of some medicine men, who are, in fact, the last generation of Iranian outstanding medicine men. These medicine men carried out many important services in medical area like educating numerous students. Inspired by Indian medicine, these doctors, who were trained in the school of great Iranian physicians, added to the richness of their former teachings. Recognition of diseases and attention to its treatment based on experimental principles and mental state and principles of proper nutrition in the treatment of patients, is one of the points of medical attention of this period. One of the points to consider in the medical life of this period was the widespread presence of European physicians and their competition with Iranian physicians in the field of politics and government. These competitions started from the Safavid era and continued during this period. The great proximity of Iranian physicians to the kings of this period showed their superiority over foreign rivals.
Applying a descriptive-analytical method and by analyzing different texts, this study seeks to introduce Iranian and foreign medicine men and their comparison in terms of explaining the Iranian medical practice and medical condition in this period.
Results of the research show that in spite of the decline of Islamic culture and civilization in medical area, we witness the presence of the last famous Iranian medicine men whose prominence went beyond the borders of Iran. Different ways of treating diseases, specially emphasizing on psychological issues and writing multiple medical books and their ability in comparison with European doctors who resided in Iran are the most important (Assef, 1969, p.139)
Physicians of this period, such as Alavi Khan, were among the most famous physicians of their time and even after their time, and their fame spread to the borders of India Paying attention to the psychological aspects of patients and applying the correct principles of nutrition by them, especially the treatment of various diseases of Nader Shah Afshar and writing several books in the field of medicine and knowledge of herbal medicines and training of students all show the high position of this sage in medicine. Was. (lbid: p. 145). The challenges and efforts of Iranian physicians compared to European physicians who came to Iran in the form of religious, political and commercial delegations during this period, show the relative superiority of Iranian physicians in diagnosing and treating diseases. European physicians who came to Iran through various East India companies and were recruited to the court in various ways for political influence, according to the data of this period, did not have a correct understanding of medicine and were treated only with the use of some new pain killers (Bazin,1961 P. 29, 75). And their only purpose was to increase the commercial interests of these companies. Diseases such as cholera, plague, and malaria were more prevalent during the period in question. Due to the weaknesses of the political structure of the governments of the time and their inattention to the disease, the people had no choice but to flee and migrate from the place of the disease. During this period, especially the plague in Zandieh period, many people suffered casualty (Navai. 1997, p. 83).
Numerous compilations of some Iranian medicine men in this period and their comparison in terms of treating diseases with European doctors present in Iran confirm the superiority of Iranians in diagnosing and treating different diseases. Presence of Iranian doctors in the Indian Court of the Gurkanis due to the wide presence of Europeans in that country is another point of this claim. Iranian physicians of this period had a special emphasis on the experimental and psychological issues of patients. Attention to psychological issues in the treatment of diseases and emphasis on maintaining the peace of mind of patients were among the issues of concern for physicians of this period. Attention to other medical issues, especially the careful study of patients 'symptoms and experimental activities in this field, including the observation of patients' urine, shows the importance of experimental topics in the treatment of diseases of this period. An combination of Indian and Iranian drugs indicates the convergence between Indian and Iranian medicine. At this time, we are also witnessing the presence of Western medical claimants in Iran. However, their medical science was in its infancy and they did not have a significant advantage over Iranian medical knowledge and sometimes they were surprised by the herbal medicines of this period in the rapid treatment of diseases. Despite this practice, their orientalist view and emphasis on the superiority of the West over the East, especially in the field of medicine, is very much seen among the works of Westerners at that time and scholars of the later period; Therefore, their resources should be used with caution.