عنوان مقاله [English]
During the course of history, music has always occupied an extraordinary position among different cultures and nations. Plato regards music learning as one of children’s educational principles (Plato, Book III, 2004, p. 399). Furthermore, the role of music in humans’ every-day lives is quite clear. Whether in ancient times or today, humans have always paid special attention to music, attempting to convey their messages to God through music and rhythmic words. Despite today’s progress in technology, there are still traditions alive among the people of Zagros which are deeply rooted in mythologies; they are connected to a universe beyond the material world and are mostly accompanied by the sound of Sornā musical instrument. Various functions of this instrument in the culture of the people of Zagros include martial arts, festivities, providing comfort in grief, conveying messages, promising hope, and mythical and mystical functions such as asking for rain, asking for a male offspring, driving the moon out of the hands of evil forces, and helping to find lost corpses in rivers. The present study seeks to provide answers to the following questions: What are the functions of Sornā musical instrument in the culture of the people of Zagros? What are the origins and philosophies behind those functions?
The present study was conducted using the descriptive-analytical method. Data were collected using library studies, field research and references to the comments of philosophers including Aristotle, Plato, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Durant.
The nature of music is complex and mystical. During the course of history, man has always had an exceptional outlook towards music. Particularly in the spiritual culture and folkloric and mythological beliefs of Iranian ethnicities, music has always occupied a special position. Sublime instances of music are manifested through different religions, faiths, and ethnicities. Various rituals and ceremonies of all religions are somehow accompanied by a specific type of music. As two ethnicities that safeguard the Iranian culture, Lurs and Kurds have always had a special place for music in their hearts. In this study, seven cases of the religious functions of Sornā musical instrument in the culture of the people of Zagros is examined; these people play Sornā musical instrument in martial arts, festivities, funerals, wedding ceremonies, and other folkloric traditions.
In Lorestan and Bakhtiari, Sornā musical instrument is used to induce excitement and a sense of epic feeling into warriors. Albeit, this type of music is deeply rooted in the Iranian ancient history; in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, there has been many instances of trumpet playing to announce the commencement of wars. In funerals, Sornā musical instrument would be played in a sorrowful tone which also stems from Iranian ancient history and mythology. What makes music in Zagros region a unique genre are the mystical and mythological functions of this musical instrument in the modern world. People of Zagros would seek help from this instrument in order to ask for rain, ask for male offspring, find lost corpses drowned underwater, and seek shelter from natural disasters such as lunar eclipse. Subsequently, it can be expressed that Sornā musical instrument is an inseparable part of the lives of people who live in Zagros region.
Music occupies an exceptional position in the hearts of all ethnicities and nations throughout the globe. Ancient civilization and humans from past historical periods have had an extraterrestrial perspective towards music; they would attempt to convey their messages to gods through music and rhythm. In ancient times, there has been an inseparable bond between music and temples. Music has retained its special position in the modern world as well. Though Sornā is an international musical instrument with a variety of functions, it has a special bond with souls and minds of the people of Zagros. This instrument has always accompanied these people in battles, festivities, sickness and health. In addition, the instrument serve mystical and mythological functions in the culture of the people of Zagros which is worth reflecting upon in terms of mythological point of view. One of the functions of this instrument involves conveying terrestrial and extraterrestrial messages. In the past where modern messaging services were non-existent, Lurs and Kurds would convey their messages of happiness or sorrow to distant lands using the instrument. Moreover, they would also convey their wishes and requests to God through the magical sound of Sornā musical instrument; a subject also reflected upon by Nietzsche. The majority of common traditions in the culture of the people of Zagros are deeply rooted in myths and incredibly reflect mythological beliefs, all of which are performed using this instrument. One of these rituals is a ceremony held to ask for a male offspring. In this ceremony where Sornā musical instrument is played, a woman who desires to bear a male child would climb a mountain with a group of instrument players and would ask the sun for a male offspring through beautiful poems pertaining to the greatness and fairness of the sun. The song in this ceremony is very similar to a pray written in Mehryasht. She would also bestow upon the sun a piece of bread; according to Iranian and Greek mythological beliefs, the Sun was the god of music and growth and people would bread and flour upon the Sun as well.
Additionally, in ceremonies held to ask for rain which is a common affair among almost all faiths and religions, Lurs and Kurds would play Sornā to convey their wishes to God; a subject that is discussed clearly in Tiryasht. Moreover, the people of Zagros believed that lunar eclipses occur as a result of a battle between evil and godly forces. According to their beliefs, the Jinn intended to curse the moon as a force of God; a subject that is mentioned in Avesta and advocated by Al-Biruni. Therefore, people would attempt to curse the Jinn using music (Sornā) which was considered as a godly weapon. Similar to the people from the South and North of Iran, these people would also use the magical force of Sornā to find corpses lost in rivers.