عنوان مقاله [English]
Mysterious story of Lulies and Kowlies (different types of Gypsies) is very exciting in history. In the literature of nations, they have always been under the focus of people and poets inspiring them in their works. These happy, singing, wandering people have always been a source of entertainment and joy for the people. Maybe that’s why some people consider gypsies as Kabulis. Gypsies are scattered all over Iran and are known by different names. This study investigates the social status of these musicians Luli in Persian proverbs.
The research method is descriptive and analytical. To do this research, we used the book Encyclopedia of Persian Proverbs (Zolfaghari, 2009) and selected two hundred Persian proverbs from a total of one hundred thousand proverbs. Based on the extracted proverbs then, we examined the status of Lulies and Kowlies among the people. Apart from this, and where ever deemed necessary, we also referred to the poets’ written stories and literature and poems.
According to an ancient legend, Bahram-E-Gour ordered to bring one thousand Rameshgar (Minstrel) from India to Iran, according to Ferdowsi. But Tha’labi and Nizami mentioned the number as four thousand and six thousand respectively. Kowlies are considered the remnants of past Gousans (See Boyce and George Farmer, 1989: 243). It should be said that Gousan is a noun that means minstrel. The Gousans were traveling poets, musicians, narrators of national stories of Iran, kings’ entertainers, and were respected among the people of their community. The best, most famous, and most masterful Gousans used to enter the houses of the nobles and the court of kings. They have been in Iran since ancient times. The difference between the famous court Gousans and the wandering Gousans was that “in addition to better singing and playing, they also used to be a poet, or they had become masters in poetry and possibly had known calligraphy.” (Khaleghi Motlagh, 2007: 24). But as we will see, the Kowlies were among the people and were not very respected. Unlike Gousans, Kowlies were not narrators of ethnic stories; they entertained people with dancing and singing in celebrations.
Kowlies used to live in different areas of Iran and were known as the following names:
Pahlavan: Local musicians and players in Balouchestan
Toushmal: Music players in Bakhtiari tribe and Lori communities of Toushmal.
Jat: The cameleers of Balouchestan who are also gypsies.
Jouki: Living in Mazandaran and Gorgan. They were nomads and mostly engaged in smithy.
Changi: Music players of Korna, Naghareh, Sorna in Ghashghayi tribe who were also gypsies.
Kharat: Music players in Kermanshah, as Kharat was used to make Tonbak, Dohol, Sorna, Normeh Nay.
Deli: Nomads in Lorestan who gather corn and harvest while singing in Lori.
Domi: Gypsies of India who immigrated to the west of Iran and live in Lorestan.
Zargar: Also known as Romanlo or Romano, who are gypsies of Ghazvin.
Sazeneh, Sazandeh or Hindi: Music players of Lori-Bakhtiari language.
Sozmani: Gypsy dancers who used to live in Sanandaj and Kermanshah. Ladies were dancers, and men used to play music and sing.
Ghorbati: A title for gypsies from India in Khorasan. They were foreigners for the people. In Kerman, gypsies are also known as Ghorbati.
Fioj: A common Arab group in south Khorasan near Birjand, Ghaen, Gonabad, Torbat Heidarieh, Kashmar, and Khavaf.
Gharachi: A term for dark-skinned people which was used for Turks.
Ghorshomar: Gypsies of Khoarasn who were also known as Ghorshomal, Ghorbati, Ghorbat, Nafar, Fioj who used to sell iron and screening devices.
Kaseb: In northern Khorasan, the lady partners were called Kaseb or Jat. they were Shia. They were mostly working in the industry.
Goodar/Godar: Originally Indian and dark-skinned living in Mazandaran and playing music.
Goorooni: In Lorestan, the gypsies are categorized into Louti and Goorooni.
Louti: In Lorestan, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Ilam, Mazandaran, and Khorasan, they were music players.
Louri: Nomad music players in Sistan who learned playing from their ancestors.
Mehtar: Music players of Kohkeluye who were gypsies.
Mirshekal: Music players of Bakhtiari tribe.
Lulies and Kowlies are an integral part of Iranian culture. And in all societies they are engaged in dancing, acting, singing, divination, blacksmithing and carpentry. The behavior of these Lulies has been reflected in Persian proverbs and poems of poets. Kowlies can not be considered the survivors of Gousans. Gousans were well-respected poets, musicians, narrators of Iranian national stories, entertaining kings and the people of their community. But the Kowlies were among the people and were not highly respected. People do not like Lulies because of their hatred behavior. This hatred is reflected in two hundred Persian poems and dozens of poems by poets. In Persian proverbs, more attention has been paid to the bad behaviors and negative aspects of Lulies and Kowlies. Still, in classical poems, their positive aspects of charm and happiness are emphasized. Although Lulies and Kowlies are synonymous, Luli has a subtle and feminine use, but not Kowli.
Lulies have entered Persian literature with their musical instruments and socio-cultural characteristics. Kowlies are omnipotent. They work as bath workers, singers, blacksmithing, and coppersmithing and are skilled in many jobs. The main occupations of Kowlies, which are reflected in Persian proverbs and poems, are:
Singing, playing, and dancing: This group, as the custodians of traditional music, used to participate in celebrations such as weddings and circumcisions, Nowruz celebrations, mourning ceremonies and used to earn money by playing songs.
Mareke-Giri (Street Performance): One of Mareke-Giri types was swaying, as in the parable of “Swaying in front of a Kowli is a mistake.”
Theft and robbery: They are known for theft and robbery. The term “loti-khor” refers to the same behavior of the Kowlies, equivalent to lifting. Rumi mentions the attribute of their theft a lot: (Rumi: 1378: 883)
Fortune-telling: Fortune-telling was mainly the work of gypsy women. In the poetry of contemporary poets, the beauty, fortune-telling, and travels of gypsy girls are reflected.
Prostitution: Some Luli women are sometimes known as prostitutes. The owner of Anandraj considered Lolikhaneh (Place of Lulies) to be synonymous with Whorehouse.
Sieve Maker: It is in the parable: “He stopped the sieve in front of the gypsy and said, ‘How do you see me?’ “As you see me,” he said.
Sale of medicinal plants: They cast spells or sell magic spells to make girls'' fortune brilliant and happy.