عنوان مقاله [English]
According to the tradition of folk literature, those who sing folk songs and folk tales in prose and rhyme are called "Aashiq". Today, there are various forms of "Ashiqlar" literature throughout a vast region of Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, etc., according to the characteristics of each region. Among the Turkish nations, "Ashiqlar" stories, which are from folk literature, have an important position. These stories, which are combination of verse and prose, have been preserved by different narrators until today. Although the main theme of these stories is heroic and romantic, they contain religious, social, cultural and economic values. One of the famous folk tales that have a fictional aspect is the story of "Ashiq Gharib and Shah Sanam". This tale belongs to the 16th century. Rasool (Magsod in the Turkish narration) the hero of the story who is later known as Ashiq Gharib, is son of a Tabrizi businessman. Ashiq Gharib falls in love with his beloved (Shah Sanam, the daughter of Khwajeh Senan in Tbilisi) in a dream and at the same time become an "Ashiq". To be with this dream, he sets out on a journey and with this journey and learning during the journey, he reached wisdom and then attained the holy position. The story of Ashiq Gharib, like most oral stories, has gone beyond the borders of Iran and is narrated by many nations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and etc.
A lot of scientific research has been done about the story of "Ashiq Gharib" and the best scientific research is dedicated to "Fikrat Turkman". In a Turkeman’s work, in addition to the information given about folk tales, the works are done on "Ashiq Gharib", the analysis and adaptation of its different narratives (five written works, eight oral works, one work from Crimea and two narrative works from Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as the poems that exist in Turkey and outside of Turkey, about "Ashiq Gharib" have been collected, and at the end of the work, two manuscripts and three oral works have been attached). In addition to this story, works of art such as cinema and theater have been created. Among which we can mention the movie "Ashiq Gharib", the last feature film of Sergei Barajanov, a famous Tbilisi filmmaker. This work dates back to 1988 based on the works of the Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov, and won the Felix award of the European Film Academy and made this story universally famous.
This article studies the story of "Ashiq Gharib and Shah Sanam" in the narratives of Iran and Turkey in a descriptive, comparative and analytical way with the unique model of Joseph Campbell's "Unique Myth". Through the archetype of the hero's journey, Campbell tries to show that most folktale heroes need to go through certain stages to gain self-knowledge and spiritual perfection. The story of "Ashiq Gharib and Shah Sanam" is also one of the folk tales of the Turkish nations, which includes the flawless archetype of Campbell's "Heroic Journey" and its three main stages of departure, Initiation and return. In this story, like other folk stories, as Joseph Campbell's model, the hero goes through a difficult process and opens the doors of another world. Although events and places are infinitely varied, all legends follow a similar pattern. In the book "The Hero with a Thousand Faces", Campbell uses the term "monomitos" to explain the "unique myth" and generally explains great searches, discoveries, freedom and great actions with the archetype of "Hero's Journey". Ashiq Gharib also with going through the physical and spiritual stages, finds a harmonious and perfect existence through which one can acquire knowledge while reaching the beloved.
The oral fictional tale, from whatever ultimate origin, is practically universal both in time and place. Certain people tell very simple stories and others tales of great complexity, but the basic pattern of tale-teller and audience are found everywhere and as far back as can be learned. Differing from legend or tradition, which is usually believed, the oral fictional tale gives the storyteller absolute freedom as to credibility so long as he stays within the limits of local taboos and tells tales that please. A folktale travels with great ease from one storyteller to another. Since a particular story is characterized by its basic pattern and by narrative motifs rather than by its verbal form, it passes language boundaries without difficulty. The story of Ashiq Gharib and Shah Sanam, which has a lyrical-imaginative aspect, is one of the most famous stories of "Ashiqlar".
The hero of the story such as other heroes in the compilation of «Ashiqlar tales« such as «Taher and Zohreh », «Nowruz and Qandab» and «Asli and Karam», drink from love wine in a dream and take action in search of the beloved. Love in Ashiqlar" literature appears in two forms; heavenly and human. While poets were treating divine love, they benefited from human elements, and for reaching the divine love, they accepted human love as a means. Falling in love in Turkish folk tales has a very important status. The story which is analyzed tells a love story which Âşık Garip feels towards a beautiful girl. In the story, the plot is fictionalized to end up in marriage. Ashiq Gharib falls in love with a beautiful girl who lives, not an abstract being. The goal of Ashiq Gharib is to reach this beautiful girl. The beloved in the story is a beautiful girl in the real life who lives, suffers, and becomes happy. Ashiq Gharib reaches the beloved after seven years, while these seven years full of hardship in the path of individuality, made him perfection.
In this story, Ashiq Gharib and Shah Sanam are both called to a journey of individuality. Shah Sanam personally completes this journey, but Ashiq Gharib's journey to individuality is combined with his earthly journey, which is in two stages from Tabriz to Tbilisi and Tbilisi to Aleppo. This story is very similar to the mythical journey of Joseph Campbell. Apart from the three stages: a) the woman as a temptress, b) the refusal to return and c) the magical escape, the story is completely distinguished by the pattern of a mythological journey. Its distinguishing features are helping of dervish in a dream, giving love wine (buta), " instrument" as a symbol of "Ashiqlar", tests such as determining of the gift to a bride's mother (for having nursed her) and competing with other "Ashiqlar".
In this study, it was found that although the concepts of love and lover expressed in the story of Ashiq Gharib sometimes have different elements from classical and mysical literature, they have very different qualities also. Conducting such studies in different types of folk literature, instead of achieving general results, reveals a different love for each type of literature.