نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشآموختة دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی، گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.
2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.
3 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The folk culture of any nation is the very culture, thought and beliefs of that nation. This kind of culture is an expression of people’s traditions, customs and thought. In addition, we can find some information about historical sociology by analyzing the folk culture (Mabjoub,2008: 139). Proverbs, beliefs, melodies, fictions and myths form a part of folk culture (Dorri & kheirandish,2013, p.82-83). “Proverb is one of manifestations of the folk culture” (Rahmati,2004:105). The folk culture of any nation is the result of the ancients’ thought and experience showing their beliefs, customs and conventions. Therefore, proverbs and aphorisms are one of any country’s culture, civilization and literature. These proverbs and aphorisms have been used by literary and scientific characters. More than any living language, Persian has a lot of proverbs and aphorisms overfilled with a lot of elegance, thought and flavor to show its purpose. Many years ago, Aristotle believed that proverbs and aphorisms are as the bunches of the traditional philosophy that have been saved against the destruction danger under the protection of brevity, reality and pious action (Golpayegani,1997).
The folk culture of Kerman region is a part of this ancient country by having circuitous precedence. We can introduce just a little part of this region’s culture by studying historical characters of current proverbs and aphorisms among the people. The purpose of this study is to investigate the proverbs and aphorisms’ role in diffusion of culture of this region and their evolutionary circumstance. To this end, the current research studies proverbs and aphorisms of Kerman people and their historical characters by analytical approach.
The narration and current proverbs and aphorisms are collected through interviewing. Then, from among the related resources, the titles of historical characters in proverbs and aphorisms were investigated and analyzed. Finally, the results were concluded.
Understanding the wealth of folk literature such as proverbs, aphorisms, myths and stories is one of the effective ways to reach a mutual understanding of philanthropy and empathy among different nations across the world and also proving the civilization heritage. Surveying these kinds of works can make clear the basic physical and emotional needs of human beings. Undoubtedly, efforts to meet these needs can help to train the sense of brotherhood and fraternity. In this way, humans will know each other better, seeing themselves as a member of big human kind family on earth. The thought “the world is hometown of all” is gradually forming and all humans will agree with Mohammad Eghbal famous Pakistani poet. They will do this without any sense of selfishness resulting from racism and religious fanaticism (Lahori ,1994: 203).
Cultural diffusion means cultural transmission from a region to another, sometimes from an age to another age reciprocally. The created cultures of the modern world are sometimes independently developed from the old cultures and sometimes they are changed or replaced. This view has been proposed as a theory about the evolution of culture by some people like Edward Tyler. They believed that the cultural diffusion has people as an effective role in the culture development (Bashirieh, 2008:128).
People of Kerman have used the famous historical characters in proverbs and aphorisms based on their cultural and social services such as Shah Abbas Safavi, Mulla Hadi Sabzevari, Kerman governors Sardar Nosrat, Sardar Mojallal, and Iskandar Maghdouni, Yusuf Ghahvechi, Navab Safavi, Belal Habashi, Bohlul, Baktash Khan, the governor of Kerman, Eissa Khan Jalali, the gendarme of southern region of Kerman and Shah Nematullah Vali.
Some examples of current proverbs and aphorisms of Kerman and their historical roots are studied as follow:
- /âdam mibâ honar dâšte bâše/ A man must have art.
- /âšeš xədang bâše kâsəš čubi bâše/ Soup should be delicious, its bowl can be of any material.
- /a: xune sardâr sardereš munde/ From the leader's house only its facade is left.
- /a mixkan tâ mixkub hâder bun bâš/ From the beginning to the end, you must be careful.
- /engâr yusefu səre dorâhiye/ It seems Yusuf is confused.
- /bozorgiš va: navvâb mimune gədâyiš va: abbâs-e dus/ His greatness is like Nawab and his begging is like Abbas Dus
- /bəlâl ke mord dəge azun nəgoftan/ After the death of Belal, didn’t any one say Azan.
- /bohlulo: xərq-e nun-e jəvo: sərke/ Bohlul and his little properties.
- /peser-e bytâš xâne: / He thinks he is Baktash’s son.
- /pirət bəsuze âš-e kašk-e pādane/ It is just a soup but it has a lot of sounds.
- /de 'səre bâr mikone/ He is loading of two sides.
- /ye moride xar az sad dəhe šişdongi bəhtəre/ If you have a wishy-washy follower, it will be better for you to have a lot of things.
Language and folk culture are the interesting and attractive parts in proverbs and aphorisms. The language and the common culture used in spoken and written works, make the speech more beauteous and melodious, and prevents the speech from weariness and prolong. Though some proverbs are very short, they can help the writer or narrator to state concepts. We can determine thoughts, customs and behaviors especially of people of Kerman by studying the historical proverbs and aphorisms. It is common in families to use proverbs and aphorisms in training their children. In this way, the customs, manners and traditions can be survived and passed to future generations and philanthropy can be promoted among a society through the circulation of proverbs and aphorisms.