بررسی رواج نام شخصیت های تاریخی در امثال و حکم رایج مردم کرمان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختة دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی، گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، واحد سبزوار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سبزوار، ایران.

10.22103/jis.2022.18461.2253

چکیده

  امثال و حکم ملّت­ها، علاوه بر بیان نصـایح و انـدرزهای تربیتـی و اجتمـاعی، اغلـب مبیّن خلقیّات و خصلت­های درونی آنهـا نیـز هسـت کـه بـه صـورت معـانی مجـازی و استعاری و گاهی نیز صریح و روشن بیان مـی شـوند. ایـن گفتارهـای حکیمانـه، گـاهی آمیخته به خرافات، احساسات و اندیشـه هـای خـام و یـا اسـطوره ای و افسـانه ای ظـاهر می شوند که همگی نشانهء عمق و گسترهء نوع احساسات و باورهای علمی یـا غیرعلمـی و افسانه ای گذشتگان است. هدف این مقاله بررسی نقش امثال و حکم رایج شهر کرمان در اشاعه فرهنگی مردم این دیار و بررسی چگونگی تحولات آنها می­باشد. برای این منظور با رویکرد تحلیلی به بررسی امثال و حکم رایج در شهر کرمان پرداخته و شخصیت ­های تاریخی این امثال و حکم را مورد بررسی قرار داده­ایم. در پایان نیز به نتیجه­گیری پیرامون رواج این شخصیت ­های تاریخی بر اشاعه فرهنگی داشته­اند پرداخته­ایم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the spread of the names of historical figures such as the popular sayings of the people of Kerman

نویسندگان [English]

  • Isa Moradi 1
  • Abolghasem Amir Ahmadi 2
  • Ali Eshghi Sardehi 3
1 Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar
چکیده [English]

Introduction

The folk culture of any nation is the same culture, thought and belief of the people of that nation;  This type of culture expresses the customs and thinking of the people of each region;  In addition, by analyzing folk culture, information can be obtained in the field of historical sociology (cf. Mahjoub, 1387: 139).  Proverbs, beliefs, songs, stories, legends, etc. form part of popular culture, which itself is a subset of people's culture (cf. Derri and Khairandish, 2013: 82-83).  "Proverbs and sentences are also one of the subsets of popular culture" (Rahmati, 1383: 105).
 Proverb is one of the manifestations of popular culture.  The popular culture of every land is the result of the thought and experience of the past and represents the beliefs and customs of the people of that land.  Therefore, one of the manifestations of the culture, civilization and literature of any country is the proverbs, sayings, and aphorisms that have emanated from the mouths of the great people of science and literature or the common people of that land.  More than any living language in the world, Parable and wisdom are used in Persian language, each of which has a world of taste, thought, sweetness and good interpretation in fulfilling its purpose.  Thousands of years ago, Aristotle believed that proverbs and decrees are among the clusters of ancient wisdom, which have been spared from the danger of destruction in the light of brevity, correctness and correctness (Kolpaygani, 1376).
 The popular culture of Kerman is also a part of the culture of this ancient land with a long history. Therefore, by examining the historical figures and the common sayings of the people of this land, you can get to know small bits of the culture of this land.
 The purpose of this article is to examine the role of proverbs and common sayings of Kerman city in the cultural spread of the people of this country and to examine how they evolve.  For this purpose, with an analytical approach, we have investigated common proverbs and sayings in the city of Kerman, and we have examined the historical characters of these proverbs and sayings.  In the end, we have drawn conclusions about the prevalence of these historical figures on the cultural spread.

Methodology

In this research, the authors first collected this special and common narrative of proverbs and sayings among the people of Kerman city in the field and through interviews;  Then, from the sources related to the subject, they investigated the titles of historical figures like Akhmel and Hakem, and took a picture.  Then he analyzed and presented the results.

Discussion

Understanding the wealth of popular literature such as proverbs and sayings, myths and stories is one of the effective ways to create understanding and a sense of altruism and empathy between different nations of the world and to realize the ideal of dialogue between civilizations.  Examining these kinds of works can explain the basic physical and emotional needs of humans, and without a doubt, efforts to meet these needs will help foster a sense of brotherhood.  And this is where people will know each other better, and each one will see himself as a member of the great human family on this planet.  The cosmopolitan thought will gradually take shape, and everyone will be far from selfishness, racism, and blind religious prejudices, and will agree with the renowned Pakistani poet Muhammad Iqbal (Iqbal Lahori, 2033: 203).  Diffusion of culture means the spread of culture sometimes from one area to another, sometimes from one time to another and in a two-way manner.  The cultures created in the new world are sometimes independently developed from the old cultures and sometimes they are changed and replaced.  This view has been proposed in the form of a theory about the evolution of culture by people like Edward Tyler.  According to them, the dissemination of culture plays a very effective role in the development and development of culture (see: Bashiriyeh, 1385:128).  The people of Kerman are famous historical figures such as;  Shah Abbas Safavi, Mullahadi Sabzevari, Sardar Nusrat and Sardar Majal of Kerman governors, Iskandar Makdoni, Yusuf Kafi Chi, Nawab Safavi, Bilal Habashi, Bahlul, Bektash Khan governor of Kerman, Issa Khan Jalali, gendarme of the southern region of Kerman, and Shah Nematullah, but according to the measures  They have used their culture and society in proverbs and sayings.
  Examples of proverbs and sayings of the people of Kerman and their historical roots are examined.
 One can have art!
  (/dam mibâ honar dâšte bše/)
 The food should be hot, the bowl should be wooden!
 /âšeš xədang bâše kâsəš čubi bâše/
 Oh, the house of the leader, the leader is left!
 /a: xune sardâr sardereš munde/
 Be a nailer to a nailer, Hader Boon!
 /a mixkan tâ mixkub hâder bun bâš/
 As if Yusuf is at a crossroads!
 /engâr yusefu səre dorâhiye/
 He is great and the Nawab is a beggar and Abbas is a friend!
 /bozorgiš va: navvâb mimune gədâyiš va: abbâs-e dus/
 Bilal is a man, don't ask for permission!
 /bəlâl ke mord dəge azun nəgoftan/
 Bahlool and Barley Bread and Vinegar!
 /bohlulo: xərq-e nun-e jəvo: sərke/
 Homeless son!
 /peser-e bytâš xâne: /
 The old man is burning with curdled ash!
 /pirət bəsuze âš-e kašk-e pādane/
 It's annoying!
 /de 'səre bâr mikone/
 A disciple of a donkey is better than a hundred and six dengi!
 /ye moride xar az sad dəhe šişdongi bəhtəre/

Conclusion

In proverbs and sayings, it is an attractive and heartwarming part of language and popular culture, which makes its use in writings and speech more beautiful and pleasant.  It prevents boring and lengthy speech.  Considering that some proverbs are very short, but they help the speaker and the writer in expressing the concepts.  By studying and examining the historical roots of proverbs and sayings common among the people of Kerman, one can understand the spirit, thinking, customs and especially the history of these people.  It is also clear that the function of proverbs and rulings for raising and teaching children is common among families, which makes traditions, manners and customs survive and transfer them to children and future generations in other regions.  With the spread of proverbs and rulings, altruism is promoted and empathy and understanding are created between the people of the same community and other regions.  These are the characteristics that make culture contagious, and throughout history, continuous cultural diffusion occurs among societies.  By examining the historical roots of proverbs and sayings common among the people of Kerman, the manifestations of culture, civilization, literature, habits, customs, ways of life and thinking of the predecessors of this region are determined.  Kermans have authenticity, that's why it spreads in other cultures.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Proverbs and sayings
  • proverbs
  • historical figures
  • cultural diffusion
  • Kerman
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