عنوان مقاله [English]
Darabnameh by Abu Tahir Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Ali ibn Musa al-Tarsus is the story of Darab, son of Bahman and his daughter, Homa. The reflection of Ayari's special rituals and the symbolism of the initiation in Darabnameh are among the remarkable features of this work. Given the symbol is like a language that, although abstract and conceptual, expresses a clear and coherent idea of existence and the world.
Access to the underworld whose gateway is through a cave is in the processing of the storyteller's mind and the inner and hidden form in the story and is directly related to the attachment of the human soul to the pre-descent position and more proximity to God. It is symbolized by descending to the lower world and ascending to the higher world. Symbols and symbolism create an inseparable link between the symbolist and human and the symbol with human beings, which responds to human needs and validates their psychopaths. Examining and explaining symbols enables us to be aware of what is in the human mind and to realize that their expression may change over time, but their function and result are that of liberation, and is freedom, transformation, and metamorphosis stay constant. Regarding this explanation, the main question of the present study is to what extent in Darabnameh, the creation of sacred places and centralization of that space through access to the underworld can matter as a way to reach perfection and die from the stage and give birth in the upward stage.
This research follows a documentary and library method based on symbolism and its role, specifically examines the function of the symbols in the ritual initiation ceremony based on the report of Aboutahir Tarsusi in Darabnameh. The importance of the present study lies in the fact that it can lead to new findings from Ayari texts and on the other hand shows the function of the symbols in conveying some of the beliefs of its predecessors.
3.1. Symbol and symbolism
A symbol is usually a sign that replaces something else and is considered as an indirect cognitive tool. The existence of such symbols and images in the works of authors, in general, indicates the existence of an ideal world beyond reality. The meaning of symbols and symbolism is understandable to us when we can fully understand the structure of the symbol because if we stop at one meaning or concept of the symbols and do not try to discover other dimensions of the symbols, we cannot claim to understand them.
3.2. Symbolization and initiation
What lies in the idea of the symbolism of initiation is the expression and value of the first appearance and the first manifestation of everything, which makes it possible to express the return to the origin and living in the time when the universe appeared, and the capacity of symbolic initiation allows the novice and the beginner to get rid of a mental and inner state and to understand and recognize the reality and objectivity of his personal experiences. Meaningful components of any ritual are the symbols and codes that form the basis of the components of the initiation. These components together with metaphor, simile, allusion, and recognition in the mind of the author, who also takes them from his community and group, narrating them in a story. A ritual symbol is not like a literary symbol in which there is a substitution and analogy between words, but it is an image that restrains and stabilizes the subconscious mental force and has a hidden and unknown aspect, and is a personal experience and a state of mind and individual attraction.
3.3. Story and basis of the introduction
What is remarkable in this discussion is the preservation of all forms of rites of passage in the story to which the opposite meaning is imposed. Propp calls this semantic opposition "reversal." The plot of the story is inversely related to reality and shows that the plot of the evolutionary method does not arise from the direct reflection of reality, but is born from the negation of the plot of the story.
3.4. Ascents and descents
Literature has four main narrative currents. First, descent from the upper world, second, descent into the underworld, the third, the ascent from the underworld, the fourth, ascent to the upper world.
All stories arise from the fusion or metaphorical separation of these four (radical) narratives in literature.
3.5. Symbolization of initiation in Darabnameh
Using symbols such as ascent and descent, magical flights, entering the land of the talking tree, entering and leaving the dark caves by ladder, abandoning the child in the mountains and his raising by an animal, going to the darkness for immortality, passing through Mount Qaf, etc., each of which is considered a journey for the hero and a complete test for dying in one stage and being reborn in the next stage for the hero and they all can be seen in Darabnameh of Tarsus. The following section discusses the basic symbolic concepts associated with the discussion of initiation.
The element of the cave in philosophical and religious traditions is very noticeable and can be seen in the myths of rebirth and the rites of initiation in many societies. The idea of the protagonist passing through the cave as a transferring means to enter the underworld can be examined in the category of transitional stages.
The well has a sacred state in all traditions because it is a combination of three cosmic orders: the sky, the earth, and the underworld, and the three elements of water, earth, and wind. The well is a way to connect the three, on the other hand, the well is a microcosm. Through the well, communication is established to the place of the dead. Entering the abyss or deep well, which is reminiscent of a ritual hut in the ceremony of burial and mystery-learning, and leaving it, is a symbol of rebirth.
By examining the principles of the initiation and its symbolism in primitive and ancient cultures, it can be deduced that their purpose is to express the human condition of the early age and his attitude and belief in immortality and rebirth. Entering the underworld and ascending to the supernatural world is followed by perfection for the protagonist of the story, which is the meaning hidden in the initiation. Upon entering the underworld (the world of the dead), the hero encounters the truth of his existence and uses the origin of man to achieve prosperity and spontaneity and to enjoy the freedom and liberation that he lost after the fall of man.
The symbolism of the cave and other symbolisms in Darabnameh, such as entering and leaving the well and climbing the mountain, illuminates that the symbol of the "cave" in Darabnameh is one of the main images of the story and in the form that the hero enters the cave, disappears then reappears by climbing a ladder or an opening in the roof of the cave and can be defined as reaching a level of spiritual evolution. The hero's spiritual evolution is a kind of achievement from self-awareness to unconsciousness and gives meaning to the sacred space and place and "centrality" in the story. The result is a return to his group and association for the sake of helping, which is the main meaning behind the visit.