عنوان مقاله [English]
The factor of textual coherence and sentence relation are divided into three categories according to Halliday and Hasan:
A) Lexical factor: including repetition, synergy and semantic domains.
B) Grammatical factors: including referral, replacement and deletion.
C) Connective factors: including conjunctions (Yahaghi and Fallahi, 2011, p. 331).
New linguists, in the course of their early studies, have relied only on the description of less linguistic units and have not paid attention to the study and analysis of disciplines beyond such as in the critique of these research approaches (De bougrand and Dressler, 1981, p. 21). Gradually, with the development of linguistic research and the development of new theories, Noam Chamsky's rotational method, became a concept between sentences, and the basic need for study was concentrated within the organization of the text so that the text could be studied by linguists as a larger linguistic unit. (Ibid 104-130).
As a result, it led to the discovery of semantic relationships between elements of language which arise from the function of elements of coherence in the text.
Since from the end of 20th century, a more detailed study of speech has been opened especially with patterns such as the pattern of cohesion and on the other hand, Khaghani in Persian poetry is a symbol of the strength and stability of poetic speech in the form of Ode.
One should examine to see if the pattern of coherence confirms the coherence of Khaghani's speech. In the prevalence of some fascinations, it seems necessary to see and explore the magnificent Persian text from new perspectives in order to show their originality' strength and coherence.
In 1976 Halliday and Hasan divided English text cohesion tools into three categories: Grammatical tools including “referral”, “substitution” and “deletion”. Link tools including conjunctions; and lexical tools including repetition. In 1985 they expanded this division into another joint work.
It is the coherence consistency and integrity of the text that keeps the components of the text together; That is the meaning of lexical units within each sentence depends on the other units within the same sentence (Taki, 1999, p.73-81).
Text coherence refers to the set of links and relationships that exist between the components of the text. These links and relationships distinguish the text from randomly stacked sentences and turn it into a coherent whole (Lotfipur, 1995, p. 110). Vocabulary coherence based on the relationship that lexical units of language have with each other in terms of the content of their meanings and the text trough these relationships can be continuous and coherent (Mohajer & Nabavi, 2014, p. 64). Word has no meaning in isolation. The meaning of a simple or compound word is related to other words in the language. The main task of semantics is the clarify words and determine these semantic relations (Tarask, 2001, p. 18).
Recursion has the highest value among the elements of other words and increase the musical level of the poem, the stability of the words, the unity of the subject or the embodiment images and poetic emotions and feelings and the single theme and solidarity of the verses and connect them with chains (yavari, 2000). Recursion comes in several forms: repetition, contradiction, semantic inclusion, synonym.
One of the factors of the lexical coherence in the text is the factor for repetition. According to Halliday, repetition is the most obvious type of lexical coherence. The cohesive factor of repetition includes all morphological construction of a word (yavari, 2018, p. 163-192).
In Khaghni's view like the formalists, the word has a special importance to the extent that various literary techniques such as: prosody, repetition of sounds, repetition of syllable in words, etc. As a tool to draw the reader's attentions to the word element (Alavi Moghaddam, 1995). The thirst for word choice is clearly evident in Khaghani's words (Tajlil & Musavi, 2014).
In this Khaghani's poem, 41 words are repeated more than once. The most commonly used word is morning (It is the most frequent word in this poem). Khaghani has been called the poet of morning. Maybe that is why he pays attention to the morning and sunrise in his poems.
Contemporary patterns in literary studies are clearly arguments for commenting on literary topics. One of these models is the model of Halliday and Hasan cohesion, which was reviewed by Hasan sometime after its publication and was finally presented by Halliday and Hasan shortly after. For decades, formal studies based on this model have become increasingly important. On the other hand, the importance and success of Khaghani in Persian has always been raised. In this research, using the evolved theory of coherence of Halliday and Hasan (1985) in role-oriented linguistics; analysis, coherence and continuity in verses of Khaghani's poem have been done to determine how the semantic connection of cohesive chains has been realized in this poem.
According to this theory, the coherence of the relations between elements is the constructor of the text, but it is not enough just to achieve the coherence factors in the texts; rather after showing these factors, it is necessary to examine the coherence of the text, based on coherence coordination. This study, following the achievement of coherence of the factors and coherence of the text of the poem, led to the conclusion that Khaghani's verses have a high coherence according to Halliday model. Although the strength of the structure of Khaghani's poetry does not need to be confirmed by such models but it is a conclusive argument and a valid argument that shows that the patterns favored by modern scholars also confirm the coherence of the words of the greats of Persian literature.
According to the collected analysis materials, the following contents were obtained. Repetition and reference have the highest frequency in the issue of coherence of Khaghni's logic poem. In the topic of repetition, the highest frequency of words, revolved around the following axes:
Topics related to religion: God, Guidance, Baggage, futurity, Clerics.
Topics related to nature: Morning, sky, night, sun, moon.
3.Vocabulary related to war: Cousin, dagger, armor, razor, ring, punch, kidnapping.
4.Topics related to clothing: Cloaks, robes, masks, hats.
It is as if Khaghani wants to sing the epic of the sultan of religion instead of the epic of sultan of the time and show us a deep alternative. In this axis, he combines all the elements of nature to achieve his goal. The method of Haliday and Hasan in the Latin articles that are available and in the Persian articles that have been published in prestigious academic journals in the last 35 years is the first case study- Khaghani's poem- is translated into text and then into words. and are checked. This method is very accurate in this regard and according to this model, we can speak with certainty about the coherence of Khaghani's speech.
Also, in response to the questions of expression of the problem, it was found that new patterns for examining the ancient texts are not prohibited and there is no problem and the firmness of Khaghani's speech, which is clear for Persian literature elites, was proved by this pattern. It was also answered that the use of modern patterns is not a problem for the study of ancient texts. This pattern which has good accuracy and detail, is suitable for the study of Khaghani's poem.