عنوان مقاله [English]
The culture and art of each nation show its history, originality and ancient civilization which due to the valuable works it has left, has always been considered by different ethnic groups and nations, one of the most important civilizations in history that has been able to play an irreplaceable and effective role on others.Iranian civilization has been ancient since its original culture and art was able to influence different nationalities such as Arabs and Abbasids. Iran has a great and exemplary culture and civilization, and the role of Iranians in culture and art has been well-known to the general public, so it is important to show the original culture and civilization of the people which has many hidden values, because "such studies And research helps nationalities to better understand each other and sometimes leads to better understanding and improvement of relations between them "(Ghanimi Hilal, 1373: 132-133), in fact," Comparative literature looks at discovering the global dimensions of literature from its historical perspective and Its various manifestations show it over the centuries and give nations the opportunity to search for themselves in the literature of others and to become aware of their status and at the same time, to know their character well enough to be able to correct their position or To defend their position against false and untrue images of others and to provide the basis for understanding based on honesty between nations ”(Ibid: 546-547), therefore, considering the existence of manifestations of Iranian culture and art in the poems ofHussein Ibn Zahak, a famous poet of the second and third centuries, research in his poetry is important, the number of verses of Zahak, more than three thousand verse has been lost over time and only about eight hundred verses remain, he has been able to address issues such as: praise, Khmer and lyric, with a simple but clever and accurate expression, an honest but lively and dynamic account of culture and Present Iranian art and originality, and by presenting ethics and art, architectural style, Mehregan celebration, Sufi wine and wine, court aristocracy, good and bad days, portraits of Iranian and Barmakian characters, and the use of Persian words involved has been able to reach Iranian culture and art in the Abbasid era, and its great role and influence on the Arabic-Abbasid culture, so the poet's divan is an important historical document for researchers who study the news and situation of the people of the second and third centuries AH.
The present article, in a descriptive and analytical manner, using library sources, has examined Ibn Zahak's poems, but in order to clarify the subject as much as possible, first generalities of Ibn Zahak's illustrations and place in illustration have been presented. Then, by comparing the poet's poems with the authors' critical theories and historical documents, we came to the fact that Ibn Zahak's poems are a reflection of the culture and civilization of Iran.
The culture and civilization of any nation shows the originality and historical richness of that nation. Due to the ancient connection of nations and cultural exchanges, and the deep connection of Iranians with Arabs, Abbasids and Christians, the importance of historical documents such as poetry in understanding the culture and civilization of nations becomes clear. But Iranian culture and civilization has a very long history. With the beginning of the Abbasid caliphate and the presence of Iranians in the Abbasid rule, the foundation of a great cultural movement was laid. In the Abbasid era, the Arabs interacted with other civilizations such as Iran and Rome, and many of these cultures were influenced by Iranian culture, including those who played a significant role in the Abbasid caliphate and were able to illustrate the culture and civilization of ancient Iran in various assemblies and circles, were poets, In fact, poetry was the court of honor and glory of the Arabs. Hussein Ibn Zahak, considering that he was an Iranian and had a privileged position among the rulers and caliphs of the time, was able to show the culture and originality of the Iranians by expressing poetry with special delicacy, skill and mastery, according to Shoghi Riyadh. It was a measure that could fill the assemblies with joy and richness, and arouse the admiration of the faithful and the elders, and express the language of its culture and originality in the Abbasid era ”(Shoghi, 1967: 43), the cultural and artistic manifestations of Hussein Ibn Zahak's poems which are signs of culture And Iranian civilization shows the ancient era in the Abbasid era, prominent in the poet's court In fact, the poet's divan expresses the identity and civilization of a nation that has been a pioneer in ethics, art, culture and originality, and thus has been able to influence others. so addressing the poet's poems and focusing on the essence, culture and civilization of the nation, Which has many intrinsic values, is important, but because literature is the broadest cultural horizon of nations, the main components of identities can be identified through its reports. Therefore, this study, by showing the elements of Iranian culture and art, the effects of which have appeared in the poems of Hussein Ibn Zahak, as a historical document, has an important role in identifying Persian and Iranian culture and civilization.
Hussein Ibn Zahak, an Iranian poet of the first Abbasid era, one of the poets of the second and third centuries, was the language of culture and civilization of ancient Iran which was able to identify many elements of the culture and civilization of the Abbasid era on which manifestations of Iranian culture and art Had influenced, to show. in fact, Ibn Zahak's poetry is the manifestation of Iranian culture, ethics and art, and accordingly, the images presented of ethics and art, architectural style, Mehregan celebration, Sufi wine and Khmer, court aristocracy, days Good and bad, Iranian and Barmakian personalities, and the use of Persian words involved, as well as the cultural interaction between Iran and ancient Christianity, have been a reflection of Iranian culture and civilization in the Abbasid era that Hussein ibn Zahak was able to beautifully and in detail To depict them, and to point out the cultural interaction between Iranians and Arabs, as well as the irreplaceable influence of the Abbasids on Iranian culture and art. Most Iranians have been limited to the sensory and material aspects of life, and abstract images of morality, and the art of music, and Sufi wine has been focused on unique features with the help of which the poet has only described the ancient culture and civilization of the Iranians and thus has been able to point out the privilege and superiority of the Iranians over the Arabs.