نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه ادبیات فارسیT دانشگاه لرستان، ایران
2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the important customs among Lak people is mourning. Mourning and lamentation for a dead person is called "Pers" by Lak speakers. "Pers" includes special ceremonies among some Lak tribes which is called Chamar. This brilliant mythological custom by both individual and group function has special principles to reverence the deceased. Deeply researching Chamar custom paleonologically and decoding it as an interpretative content indicates valuable manifestations of ancient culture of Iranian ethnics.
Generally, the method of this study is a combination of library-based and observation research. In this case study, the analytical-descriptive, structuralist and sometimes comparative methodology is applied. And qualitative method is used to show the importance, function and symbolic meaning of manifestations and elements of mysterious demonstrative ceremony, Chamar, welcoming ritual and also the death dance among Lak nations. One of the authors of this paper himself (Ahmad Kanjouri) is a native Lak speaker of Delfan town (Itivand or Ivatvand Tribe) who has participated to hold this mourning ceremony specially for the death of their beloved and relatives.
3.1 Artistic dimensions
The term "Mour" is a very important manifestation in Laki language which is one the most ancient songs. "Mour" is performed in different tunes to sorrow, praise and describe the ethical and social characters of the dead people in a painful and sorrowful way. The tone of "Mour" gives a doleful magnificence to Chamar place when men and women are singing it. According to different situations, Sorna (horn) players and drummers -sometimes just the Sorna player- perform different tones harmonically. Lak nations have performed the death dance (Rara) up to recent years. Not so long ago in NoorAbad Lorestan when an influential man died, men and women didn't use to cry but used to dance with the tones of Sorna and drum (Asadian, 1978: 8). A lot of men participating in Chamar ceremony hold eachothers' hands, in a circular way and dance with very slow movements. They dance coordinately with Sorna and drum and beat their breasts with their right hand simultaneously.
3.2 Literary dimensions of Elegies (Kalimas)
In Chamar ceremony men and women who have melodious voices sing some laments. These laments are the literature of "Mour". Laki laments are generally ten-syllabic single verses which are called "Kalima". These single verses are mainly epic and lyric. They have been transferred orally to the present generation. If someone valiant and commander died, this would be a sample of proportionate Kalima:
/ki diye sardâr wež beču va jang/
کی دیه سَردار وِژ بِچو و جَنگ
/tarsem bekošni sepâ buti lang/
تَرسِم بِکوشنی سِپا بوتی لَنگ
No one has seen a commander himself do the battle with enemy
I am afraid of him being killed and his army getting disappointed
3.3. Mythological and ceremonial dimensions of Chamar
The ancient and historical ritual of welcoming has been a public or private ceremony being held by decorating the place and generally playing horn and drum and other kinds of musical instruments. The ritual of welcoming and its related aspects is still being held by some of tribes for the mourning of their dead and beloved family members especially in Delfan town. Usually seven Sorna (horn) players and seven drummers wearing native and local cloths stay side by side and shoulder to shoulder at the entrance of Chamar place. When any group of participants arrive, they play tunes of Chamar. In Chamar in order to be more impressive, demonstrative elements, lyrics, music and creating special atmosphere are applied; which are very similar to Siavash mourning. The dance of Rara, which is very slow and sorrowful, is performed leftward. This inversion and reversal which is the mystery of death, is also represented in Shahnameh for the mourning of several different characters. By comparing and studying the death dance among different nations, it could be said that these dances are customs of passage. It is an experience for spirit which strengthens and guides it to the narrow invisible road to achieve eternity.
Chamar mourning is a mythological, mysterious and symbolic custom and an alligation of expressions and gestures, demonstrative manifestation, dance, taboos, music and lamentation which is performed for the death of the loved ones among Lak nation from long time ago. The results of this study indicate that Chamar is a kind of passing ceremonies to return to balance and accommodation with the new doleful situation. In this ceremony, in order to be more impressive, demonstrative elements, mourning cloths through creating atmosphere and music are applied being very similar to Siavash mourning (Siavashan). Comparatively studying the accepting and meeting customs and death dance of Lak people with the myths (history - stories) of ShahNameh and also with other nations shows historicity, oldness, and mysteriousness of this ceremony. The dance of "Rara" is a demonstrative custom to banish the duality of life, alliance with the eternal and obtain the initial unity again. It is also an eagerly experience, worship and a communal demonstration to strengthen and guide the spirit of deceased to the narrow invisible road to achieve eternity.