عنوان مقاله [English]
Persian poetry and prose texts (and local literature of Iranian ethnic groups) such as poetry collections (Shahnameh, Golestan and Bustan, spiritual Masnavi, travelogues and prayer letters, Khamseh Nezami, poetry collection, stories and tales, contemporary literature (poetry and prose, New poetry), native proverbs, are full of valuable and instructive tips to be used in planning, designing and organizing space. In the past periods of Iran, most cities and neighborhoods had a texture mixed with gardens and green areas inside and outside the city and neighborhoods. The existence of these gardens has had an economic function including the production of fruits, vegetables and economic income, playing an environmental function as the respiratory lung of the city and neighborhoods. In addition, there were alleys adjacent to the gardens with which the public life of the inhabitants was intertwined. The residents of the neighborhood felt comfortable, calm and belonged to their neighborhood by crossing these alleys. As can be seen in the poems and songs of some poets, some of these alleys have been places for the expression of poetic feelings and romantic dates, and many poems have been written with direct and indirect reference to the alleys of gardens.
In the present age, with the destruction of gardens, large constructions and economic view of local and urban gardens, gardens have been destroyed and consequently, the alleys of gardens. As a result of this process of commercialization, the texture pattern of the neighborhoods has changed, and instead of gardens, residential towers, and instead of alley-gardens, lifeless paths have been produced. Poetic feelings of comfort and serenity have given way to the rapid passage of private cars, the movement of strangers, and the pattern of alienation and movement. Therefore, the most important issue of the present study is the neglecting of gardens and forgetting the pattern of alley gardens in the process of evolution of residential textures in cities and villages of Iran, over time. Paying attention to this at present can prevent the destruction of existing gardens and alleys. However, some neighborhoods, cities and villages of Iran now have valuable gardens and alleys that recognition, protection and attention to them can be effective in deepening this Iranian pattern.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the position of the garden alley in Iranian culture, art, poetry and literature. In this regard, the most important question of this article is what is the location of garden alleys, culture and art of Iran? The research methodology used in this research is a historical-analytical one with a logical reasoning approach which is carried out with documentary study methods, library and case studies. The research process is in a way that firstly the issue of research and research method is raised and the place of nature in Iranian culture and literature is examined. Then the terminology of garden alley and its relationship with psychological and mystical feelings is studied and then garden alley and garden neighborhood in the arts of architecture and urban planning, painting and Iranian carpets are examined in the form of case studies.
In Persian literature and prose, alley garden has been used in various meanings and concepts including: description of Zolf Yar, description of mental space and sweet memories of love, description of beauty of mental space, desire for a sweet and hearty space, etc. In this regard, writers and poets have used the literary industries of metaphor, ambiguity and narration of memories. Alley garden has a high position in Iranian poetry and literature as well as traditional Iranian architecture and urban planning. The alleys of the gardens have been the place of expression of many pure poetic feelings for the people in the villages and cities. As many poems have been inspired by this poetic atmosphere. The metaphor of the garden alley in Iranian poetry and literature is sometimes used to express a desirable and mystical atmosphere, and sometimes it is used as a mental or real romantic and desired space of poets, composers and writers.
Garden alleys in the tradition of traditional Iranian architecture and urban planning have been an integral part of urban textures that are still considered as part of the pillars of rural textures and small towns. As the gradual connection of the artificial texture of villages and cities has been established through the alleys of gardens to the texture of gardens and farms. This way of networking the passages and bodies of cities, gardens and farms is considered as an original, desirable and Iranian model in Iranian urban planning. A pattern which is declining in the contemporary period and giving way to non-native and western constructions.
With a humane, literary and nature-oriented view of rural and urban spaces, it is possible to help institutionalize the garden alley pattern through planning and design strategies. These strategies include: Protection of the natural heritage of gardens and garden alleys; Respect for privacy and property; Efficiency of gardens with a reception garden pattern; Creativity in garden alley design: garden alley prediction in urban regeneration; Use of national cadaster system in stabilizing gardens and preventing change of use of gardens; National registration of garden alleys in the list of cultural heritage of the country and their restoration and prevention of their destruction; Amending the laws and regulations related to gardens and garden alleys and taking preventive measures, changing "violation" to "crime" in changing the use of gardens and destroying trees; Promoting the culture of protecting gardens and alleys as a social responsibility and rights; Use of smart methods and tools in permanent monitoring and quality control of gardens, lands and constructions.