عنوان مقاله [English]
Kiumars Monshizadeh is one of the great and famous poets of contemporary Iran, many lyrical themes can be found in his poems. He studied philosophy, mathematics, physics and law. Mostly known as the founder of mathematical poetry. He is one of the few contemporary poets who was able to make a tremendous impact on the current of contemporary literature with only two books of poetry, in a way that he became the inventor of two types or branches in poetry namely Nimai and Post-Nimai poetry: one is "math poetry" and the other is "color poetry"; his creative and artistic work is not only related to poetry, but also in the field of press satire, which has never existed before in the history of our journalism. Monshizadeh can be also considered a pioneer and trend-setter herein.
In this study, it is tried to investigate Monshizadeh’s poetry and thought from the point of view of stylistics, especially the intellectual stylistics, with descriptive-analytical method and library study tools for answering the following questions:
What are the most important stylistic features of Monshizadeh and in particular, what are the intellectual thoughts behind his poetry?
Various themes are covered in Monshizadeh’s poetry as scientific terms (mathematical, philosophical, etc.), life, death, longing, complaint, love, nihilism, social pains, humor and etc.
3- 1. Mathematical terms
Kiumars Monshizadeh invented "math poetry" in the late forties and wrote controversial and interesting poems using numbers, mathematical concepts and physical formulas. Often, in cases where mathematical concepts appear in Monshizadeh’s poetry, the text of the poem is made with the help of these concepts, and it is logical to draw conclusions from its premises. Mathematical, astronomical and even chemical and physical concepts are colored and the mathematical coherence of the arguments is supported, but there are also cases where these expressive concepts find their way into the text of the poem by accident and completely find the aspect of mathematical and physical reasoning.
3- 2. Nihilism or nothingness
In Monshizadeh’s poetry, the poet’s nihilistic tendency and absurdity is visible. He is a nihilist poet expressing the events of the world and his life from the perspective of a melancholic person who does not care about the values of the ordinary people. According to Shams Langroudi (2005(, “Kiumars Monshizadeh is a nihilist poet who does not take anything, not even poetry, seriously” (p. 477).
3- 3. Satire
One of the obvious tendencies of Monshizadeh’s poetry is his socio-political satirical view of the world and the surrounding. His poetry is associated with the special language of him, viewpoint and his characteristic sarcasm, and this feature has given some of his works a unique identity. He looks at many phenomena from a humorous perspective and this satirical look has a strong and effective presence in most of his works.
Monshizadeh’s poem "The history of history" or "The geography of history" is perhaps his most important and complete poem in terms of the poet’s satirical view.
3- 4. Eqtefa and Analogy
Monshizadeh has followed some verses of the great poets, such as Hafez, in his poems and quoted from his poetry as well as Emad Khorasani.
3- 5. Complaint
In his poems, Monshizadeh has complained about the misfortunes of the times and the pain of being alone, being away from the homeland and immigration, trying to fight against the times to save himself. He compared living to a gambling game, the result of which is losing, burning, and building.
3- 6. Enologies or Khamriyat
A part of Monshizadeh's poetry includes Khamriyat. Sometimes this poet has likened the lover's red lips to saffron wine in Venice, and by using simile, he has compared the lover's eyes to the wineglass and the look to wine, also giving a special beauty to his poem with the help of analogy. In a verse, through the use of exaggeration, the poet has expressed his excessive drunkenness in such a way that he says, "I am not even able to see God because of drunkenness."
3- 7. Eulogy
Monshizadeh wrote a eulogy on the death of Forough Farrokhzad and also mentioned in verses the death of poet, journalist and writer Khosrow Golsorkhi, who was executed by the court order because of his Marxist and revolutionary beliefs.
3- 8. Islamic thoughts
Islamic thoughts are manifest in Monshizadeh’s poetry, in his assurances from the verses of the Quran, his historical and religious allusions also.
3- 9. Description
Part of Monshizadeh’s poems contain descriptions. There are three types of descriptions: imaginary descriptions, symbolic descriptions, and real descriptions. The poet, especially in his real descriptions, by using the art of recognition, simile, intellectual analogy with sense, repetition, has touched descriptions and images of beauty in his poetry which an example of that and the unique imagery is in the poem called "The galaxy of color".
He believes that some words are associated with colors for us; for example, the word snow is associated with whiteness, but some other words are in the word of the color itself. Like Sepidar, which transmits whiteness to us through the ear, and Sabzqaba also transmits green color. With the use of color, the images of the poem are colored, and imagery has a very significant status in poetry. Monshizadeh has created color images with the help of the modality of colors and the chromaticity of modes.
The results of the present study show that Monshizadeh’s poem is a lyrical poem containing descriptions, complaints, rumors, humor and the social and political issues. One of the prominent tendencies of his poetry is his socio-political satirical view of the world and its surrounding, most of his poems have strong and attractive streaks of critical humor or satirical humor.
In the poems of Kiumars Monshizadeh, who is known as the inventor of mathematical poetry and color poetry, mathematical terms, colors, humor, absurdism, and nihilism are abundantly seen in Nimai and Post-Nimai poetry. He expresses the vision of a melancholic person who does not care about the values of ordinary people.
One of the prominent trends in Monshizadeh’s poetry is his socio-political satirical view of the world and its surrounding which is mentioned earlier. Most of his poems have strong and attractive streaks of critical humor or satirical humor. Even in everyday conversations, humor is an integral part of the life of his poems.